Statutory and Policy
Bases for Consideration of Alternatives
How to Search for Alternatives:
and Environmental Enrichment for All Laboratory Animals
Welfare Information Center (AWIC), US Department of Agriculture,
National Agricultural Library - provides information for improved
animal care and use in research, teaching, and testing.
of California Center for Animal Alternatives (UCCAA),
UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine - information technology
for alternatives in animal research, education, training, and
Alternatives to Animal
Testing Website (Altweb) - site maintained by the Johns Hopkins
Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT); provides news,
information, discussion, and resources from the field of
alternatives to animal testing.
European Centre for
the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM)
- international reference center for the development, scientific
and regulatory acceptance of alternative testing methods aimed at
replacing, reducing or refining the use of laboratory animals and
to be applied in different fields in the biomedical sciences.
for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME),
Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM)
- consists of representatives from 14 federal agencies;
responsible for the coordination of the development and review of
various alternative toxicological methods.
Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (NORINA)
- audiovisual alternatives to the use of animals in teaching.
to Laboratory Animals (ATLA)
- published 6
times per year by the Fund
for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME);
provides information on development, validation, introduction and
use of alternatives to laboratory animals in biomedical research
and toxicity testing.
Information Center Bulletin (AWIC
Bulletin) - published quarterly by the US Department of
Agriculture National Agricultural Library (NAL);
provides current information on animal welfare to investigators,
technicians, administrators, exhibitors, and the public.
Canadian Council on
Animal Care (CCAC) Guidelines
on Choosing an Appropriate Endpoint in Experiments Using Animals
for Research, Teaching and Testing
European Centre for the
Validation of Alternative Methods Reports (ECVAM
Institute for Laboratory Animal Research Journal (ILAR Journal)
- quarterly, peer-reviewed publication of the Institute for
Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR);
provides information for all those who use, care for, and oversee
the use of laboratory animals, including investigators in
biomedical and related research, institutional officials for
research, veterinarians, and members of animal care and use
Animals - published quarterly for Laboratory
Animals Ltd by Royal
Society of Medicine Press Ltd to promote education and
training in laboratory animal science, technology, and welfare.
Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, WMS Russell and
RL Burch, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW),
1992 - originally published in 1959, this book reports the results
of the UFAW-sponsored research on ethical laboratory techniques
and expounds the principles of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction,